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Designing one of the biggest stadiums in North America, located right in the middle of Vancouver’s city centre, was a tricky task.

Designing a new roof structure that is meant to become a landmark, with the additional challenge of integrating a retractable membrane structure - measuring approximately 8.500m² -, able to carry nearly 15 times its own dead load, and to be built on top of an existing structure, well, that is an even more demanding engineering problem. We were happy to solve it.

The BC Place Stadium was opened in 1983 and lies in the heart of Vancouver, perfectly situated on the northern bank of the False Creek. Often referred to as "The Crown of Vancouver" and with capacity for 60,000 spectators, the stadium had the world’s largest air dome up until its renovation.
The BC Place is a part of Vancouver’s identity and skyline, so the new design had to respect the stadium’s history.

The new roof is a state-of-the-art structure, catering for all weather conditions and seasons. The roof structure and the retractable inner roof were placed on the existing - and reinforced - concrete bowl using 36 masts that delineate and support the whole. The masts reach almost 50 m in height and project the roof structure upwards to allow the building to retain its subtle lines.

The inner retractable membrane roof, designed for the redevelopment of the BC Place, transformed it in one of the most modern multi-functional arenas in the world. The roof cater for all weather conditions and withstand the second largest centrally suspended video screen worldwide, making the arena useable for Canadian football and soccer games as well as all cultural and social events in the city.

The very transparent 9,500 m² ETFE perimeter facade has a significant influence on the architectural appearance and the interior light conditions. The individual facade panels can be illuminated independently in various colours to offer visitors and passersby a constantly changing experience.

Stadium BC Place, Vancouver, Canada Motivation

Structural Solution

Although not instantly recognisable, the load bearing structure of the roof follows the classic principles of the spoked wheel in a modified fashion. The structural design is based on the division of the roof structure into 36 axes. This aligns with the architectural ambition to minimise the number of masts while enabling the consolidation of all radial cables (spokes) to one central hub, without making it disproportionally large. Additionally, this serves to limit span widths of the resulting roof cladding along the outer edge, thereby resulting in moderately sized connection components.

Stadium BC Place, Vancouver, Canada Structural Solution
The new roof provides clear spans of 227 m x 186 m and is designed to carry approximately 7,000 tons of snow. Thirty-six radial aligned cable trusses form the primary structure of the roof, and due to the high structural demands, the lower and upper cables of the truss are designed as a pair of cables. The cables are post-tensioned between a central hub and each of 36 perimeter masts that rise 47.5 m above the concrete structure.

The special feature of the stadium is without a doubt the 8,500 m² retractable roof, which can transform the open-air stadium into a completely enclosed multi-purpose venue within 20 minutes. The design also follows principles of lightweight construction; with a centrally folding membrane structure of pneumatically stabilised pillows able withstand the highest snow loads (over 180 kg/m²) uniformly distributed. The 36 pillows have an individual volume of approximately 105 m³ and are fixed to the lower cables of the radial girders using sliding carriages. The fan units located at the central hub supply the pillows with the required air pressure and also serve to deflate the pillows when the roof is to be retracted. Two polyester belts run along the radial axes between the pillows with a tensile strength of 540 kN each. Before inflating the pillows, these belts are initially pre-stressed using a mechanical tensioning device at the inner ring beam. Fluorpolymer-coated PTFE-fabric was selected as the membrane material. This fabric combines excellent folding properties with a maximum degree of light transmission (40 %).

Stadium BC Place, Vancouver, Canada Structural Solution

Technical Details

Air pressure inside the pillows is adjustable and conforms to specific and variable requirements. The normal air pressure measures 500 Pa, which can be increased up to 2,000 Pa for high-snow-loads to prevent ponding and snow accumulation. With magnetic load sensors mounted to the inner roof hanger cables of the cable truss, the permanent loading on the inflated cushion is constantly measured. This system, in combination with local weather data, provides the controlling system with sufficient information to adjust the inflation pressure automatically and to adapt the inner roof system to the structural demands.

Stadium BC Place, Vancouver, Canada Technical Details
In order to meet the requisites of a fully enclosed arena, a pneumatic pillow along the outer edge seals off the inner roof. The sealant pillow is inflated through the internal air pressure between the glass roof and inner roof membrane creating a wind and watertight enclosure. The air supply runs directly over the cells of the inner roof membrane, so that the entire inner roof with the sealant drives to the central hub when the roof is being opened and parked in the membrane garage, which is lowered vertically during the driving process. The garage, with a diameter of 18 m, serves to protect the slack membrane from wind and rain.

Stadium BC Place, Vancouver, Canada Technical Details


The design intension for the National Stadium Warsaw was to unite the expectations of 56,000 spectators with the requirements of a modern multi-purpose arena, which meant that it required a never before achieved elegant cable supported retractable roof structure able to withstand all weather conditions throughout the whole year.

The desire to attain an innovative design resulted in a unique basket-like structure that contained the facade, wrapped in the national colours of Poland, the roof, and a pioneering retractable roof.

National Stadium Warsaw, Poland Motivation

Structural Solution

The structural concept combines elements of several different ring cable roof typologies and results in one unique and hybrid mega-structure for facade, main roof and inner retractable roof. Behind the scenes innovative engineering is at the highest level, bringing together the expertise of many different engineering branches.

National Stadium Warsaw, Poland Structural Solution
The roof structure is an offspring of a system with two outer compression rings, where the upper compression ring is replaced by inclined backstays, which are anchored at the foot points of the vertical columns. The two inner tension rings are spread apart by flying masts and connected to the outer structure by radial cable girders, where upper and lower radial cable cross each other at a specific desired point. This design not only generates more structural height without creating more physical height, but it also allows the inner roof edge to be equipped with a glass cantilever structure that creates an edge able to accommodate the catwalk and equipment areas, while providing the required overlap for the inner retractable roof.

The remaining single compression ring shortcuts all radial forces, the ones resulting from the lower radial cables and the ones from the upper radial cables, diverted through the backstays, which simultaneously provides the substructure for the facade elements, into the inclined posts.

National Stadium Warsaw, Poland Structural Solution
The core piece of the roof is the central hub in the shape of a giant steel needle, located high above the kick off point in the field. The needle distributes the upper and lower inner roof radial cables in order to provide the substructure for the retractable roof.

The lower support radial cables consists of four sets of triple cables, which span from the cast steel foot point of the needle to the four corner areas of the main roof tension rings. The upper layer of the cable structure, comprising 60 radial cables, creates the supporting structure for the retractable fabric. Every single cable is pinned at the centre node, therefore, in order to keep the dimensions of that hub node as small as possible, radial cables were alternately attached in two different levels at the node, which had its structure and shape optimised to minimise weight. Despite that, the needle’s structural and functional performance resulted in an overall weight of 190 tons.

Several components of the roof’s function were placed at this structure, including the garage for the inner roof membrane and four large video screens, which are equipped with automatic winching devices that allow lowering the screens to the ground for alternative utilisation and maintenance work. The roof itself is lightweight and the retractable roof moves gently and effortlessly during deployment and closing.

National Stadium Warsaw, Poland Structural Solution

Technical Details

The retractable part of the roof comprises 9,800 m² PVC coated polyester membrane. The flexible membrane spans in tangential direction between polyester belts, which run parallel to the upper 60 cables. At specific points, these belts are punctually fixed to the sliding carriages and through those to the radial cables.

Due to the minimised layout of the cable structure of the retractable roof, for the first time ever in roofs of such dimensions, centre hole sliding carriages could be developed. The fact that the carriages can slide along the radial cables without any obstacle leads to a safe and redundant driving mechanism.

National Stadium Warsaw, Poland Technical Details
To retract the folded membrane from the centre parked position, the garage is hydraulically lowered, the winches pull the driving carriages and the fabric expands during the 17 minutes of deployment. The winches continuously pull along the subsequent sliding carriages and remaining fabric until the inner main roof edge is reached and then the driving carriage automatically locks itself to the hydraulic stressing device, which stresses the whole roof uniformly.

The then newly developed driving and stressing system for the retractable roof had to be tested hundreds of times in order to prove the required performance under all conditions.

All specific design boundary conditions were investigated, tested and stressed to realistic conditions to ensure the right materials and dimensions were used to satisfy the roof’s demand, as for example, the difference in stiffness of belts and membrane fabrics were tested to adjust the stressing equipment to realistic conditions, and all electric winches had to be laid out to allow roof retraction under the anticipated operation conditions. Furthermore, the dimensioning of the hydraulic stressing cylinders had to consider the adequate forces, and also a certain stressing reserve, in order to be able to compensate for the long-term creep effect of the inner roof membrane.

National Stadium Warsaw, Poland Technical Details


Our assignment was to introduce a movable lightweight and transparent roof to occasionally cover the outdoor theatre, a seemly simple task, complicated only by the very large rusty pipes that interfered with the roof’s horizontal moveable path out of its parking position.

Designing the moveable roof for the Gießhalle outdoor theatre gave us the opportunity to explore a range of technical and engineering solutions that involved using conventional steelwork and stainless steel cables, finding ways of connecting pneumatically inflated foil cushions as well as answering mechanical and automation engineering questions. In effect it suits the needs of the audience of the former steel mill’s theatre; and it also beautifully complements the industrial cultural hub.

The design process for such a special environment required very creative thinking. To achieve the refinement and subtlety desired for the Gießhalle open-air theatre, we designed foil-cushions to roll on undulating rails that transport the transparent roof - from a parking position inside the main building - to the open environment of the landscaped garden, in an unobtrusive and gentle movement despite the obstacles of an uneven built environment on its way. Nearly invisibly, the roof protects spectators from the weather whenever necessary.

Roof Of Casting House, Duisburg, Germany Motivation

Structural Solution

Our solution was to design a series of roof segments, nine in total, sliding over two rail segments spaced 20 m apart. The segments are rectangular transparent cushions connected by hinges, sliding along an uneven path in an undulating movement that climbs over the pipes.

Roof Of Casting House, Duisburg, Germany Structural Solution
Each segment comprises a 20 m x 3 m lightweight steel frame that holds two ETFE-foils of only 0.2 mm thick inflated to form a transparent cushion 2 m x 0.5 m. The inner air pressure is adjustable – can be raised up to an equivalent of 38 Kg/m² – to ensure the strength of the foils in strong winds.

The steel frame is extremely slender; stainless steel cable cords placed above and below the frame provide the stiffness that upholds the wind uplift and downward pressures. As with many of our lightweight structures, we tested the roof structure in wind tunnel test labs to obtain reliable values since wind loads on structures are not covered by engineering building codes. Another concern was to ensure that the mechanical and automated components worked seamlessly and reliably without spoiling the aesthetics of the movement.

Roof Of Casting House, Duisburg, Germany Structural Solution

Technical Details

Structurally each cushion frame is in equilibrium; the horizontal thrust created by the inflated cushions is neutralised by struts inside the cushions, which allows for extremely slender edge beams on the cushion frame, and prevent leakages since the compression struts do not penetrate the foil.

Every second cushion frame is equipped with four wheels that support and guide the frames on the rails, which were welded to the curved main support pipes. Stainless steel inlays at the running rail surfaces provide long-term corrosion protection. The drainage channels and pipes could be fully integrated in the structural steelwork and are virtually invisible to the eye. The support structure of the rails consists of hollow circular sections which are connected welded steel plates aligned in accordance to the flow of forces.

Roof Of Casting House, Duisburg, Germany Technical Details
The first cushion frame carries geared motors on each side and those transmit their torque via pinions to toothed racks installed along the rails, allowing the drive frame and the other coupled frames to be carried between stow and end position. The electrical energy is supplied by the cables installed along the guide chains that slide with each frame and is controlled by operator’s command, allowing variable driving speed, safety supervision functions and two drive unit that guarantees synchronous movement.

The compressor for air supply is located in a separate building to protect the stage from acoustic interference or disturbance. This was made possible by using flexible air pipes integrated into the cable guide chains.

Roof Of Casting House, Duisburg, Germany Technical Details

All elements of the structure, including clamps to fix the foils, anchorages for the cables, air pressure tubes to keep the cushions inflated, cabling for the motors, and drainage - with flexible rubber connections at the hinges in between the cushions - were considered in the detailed design phase and integrated flawlessly. The result is a very elegant retractable roof.

Roof Of Casting House, Duisburg, Germany Technical Details


Our responsibility was to design a protective and unobtrusive ‘on demand’ roof for one of Vienna’s most celebrated courtyards, the courtyard of Vienna’s Town Hall.

The administration desired to use the courtyard of the Town Hall throughout the summer months, independent of the weather. The building is of historic and architectural significance, which required us to design a delicate and aesthetically appealing roof that respected its history and architectural background.

Our design solution incorporated the Neo-Gothic arches of the arcades and the result is a retractable and foldable membrane roof structure that opens and closes itself swiftly and effortlessly when necessary.

Retractable Membrane Roof, Vienna, Austria Motivation

Structural Solution

The roof structure is light and not required to withstand high loads, which allows the folding mechanisms for the membrane fabric to create an accordion-like form, giving the roof a the opportunity to follow the Neo-Gothic arches’ shape and move lightly and elegantly.

It covers the total courtyard area (34 m long x 32 m wide), which means that it is partially supported by the existing building. Yet, the horizontal forces originated from the ropes are not transferred to the existing building; rather they are supported by the roof structure itself.

The self-supporting structure preserves the integrity of the building; four trusses were placed above the roof area, held on the carriages at the edge beams, which were installed lengthwise along the building walls. They were used to connect the horizontal forces and to allow the supporting cables to be pulled, via the carriages, along the width of the building to one side.

Between the so-called ridge cables, the membrane is essentially carrying itself uniaxially lengthwise to form the ‘valley’ – each foldable membrane area between ridge cables – or ‘valleys’. The membrane fabric was ballasted to form the accordion-like shape of the fabric as it folds, giving the roof that soft fabric appearance.

Retractable Membrane Roof, Vienna, Austria Structural Solution

Technical Details

Roof construction

The 32.5 m long edge beams at the long sides of the roof are welded box profiles from S355 being 350 mm high x 200 mm wide. They are placed on steel consoles fixed by anchor bolts at the exterior wall made of virgin stone. In the horizontal middle axis of the edge beam a T-section is welded, formed by a 400 mm wide horizontal plate (t=20 mm) and a vertical sheet. This section is used as a running surface for rollers attached to the carriages guiding the ropes and the trusses along the edge beams.
The main forces take effect in the horizontal direction: tension forces from the ridge cable carriages and compression forces from the trusses. The rollers transfer the horizontal forces directly to the vertical sheets. Additionally, smaller axial rollers are integrated to the rollers, which transmit vertical forces from dead load and imposed load (combined bearings). The horizontal and vertical running surfaces are equipped with 10 mm thick stainless steel strips.

Retractable Membrane Roof, Vienna, Austria Technical Details
The carriages for ridge cables and trusses are formed by U-profiles from S355 being 240 mm high and 212 mm wide. The ridge cable carriages are just 200 mm long since two rollers are sufficient to transfer the forces. The fork sockets of the ropes are connected to the carriages by welded brackets. The truss carriages are 800 mm long having each four rollers for several reasons: first, the compression forces, which have to be transferred to the trusses, are three-fold of the ridge cable tension forces. Furthermore, the trusses have to be supported in a stable position and the front truss is regularly stressed by torsion induced by the membrane fixed to the bottom chord.

The four trusses, where the horizontal forces that originate from the ropes are shorted, have a span of 34.2 m and are designed as three-chord trusses made from tube sections. The structural height varies in form of a lenticular truss between 1.5 m at mid-span and 0.33 m at the carriages. The bottom chord, similar to the ridge cables, has the shape of a parabola.

The ridge cables are tensioned crossways to the roof between the two edge beams with a distance of 3.58 m, having a mid-span height of 1.5 m. Open spiral strand cables made of stainless steel 1.4401 were used for the cables. The open swaged fittings are also made of stainless steel. The membrane is placed above the cords, with loops every 1.5 m to avoid slipping of the cords.

Between the ridge cables, the membrane essentially transmits forces uniaxially along the roof’s main direction. PVC-laminated polyester fabric type 1 is used for the membrane since loading is quite low. Linear ballast is placed in the valleys between the ridge cables for folding and tensioning the membrane. For this, 70 mm steel tubes are installed in membrane jackets. The one meter long tube sections are connected by flexible centring devices from polyurethane which are fixed to the valley cables with simple hose clamps (fig. 15).

Retractable Membrane Roof, Vienna, Austria Technical Details
Drive engineering

The longitudinal forces from friction and wind are transmitted to the edge beams on both sides by toothed racks attached to the beams and gear motors with sprockets installed at the truss carriages. When folding the roof, the rope carriages are pushed together by the trusses, whereas when opening the roof the carriages are pulled along by tow ropes.

A centralised electronic control system operates and supervises the drives, and all motors are equipped with digital rotary encoders. By means of a synchronous control feature, the parallel motion of associated motors can be ensured under all working conditions.

Retractable Membrane Roof, Vienna, Austria Technical Details


The Nesse Bridge in Leer is kinked on purpose, a design decision conditioned by the approaching roads on each side of the river banks. The kink became the motif of this movable bridge that consistently reappears in many angled components of the structure, thus leading to a uniform appearance.

The two bridge parts follow the directions of the adjacent roads leading to it, which required a design with a sudden change in direction at the movable central part of the span. This design decision allowed not only interesting views when crossing the bridge, but it also suited the concept of the cable-stayed bridge, which works as two fully loadable individual cantilevers when the bridge is open, and converts itself into a continuous girder of additional transverse stiffness when the bridge is closed.

Inclining the masts towards the water minimizes their height and moves the mast heads away from adjacent buildings avoiding visual conflicts. Usually, single masts lead to transversally inclined cables which reduce headroom for the user. Here, the introduction of spreader beams which bend the cables eliminates this clearance problem and creates an interesting space above the deck.

Nesse Bridge, Leer, Germany Motivation

Structural Solution

The cable-stayed bridge spans 82 m and is rearward anchored. In cross section, the bridge is constructed in well-reasoned materials and dimensional layering: from the centre of the bridge, where the movable lightweight steel-only deck is, the bridge is 3 m wide, the deck width increases to 4 m along the cable-suspended superstructure of the main span (a composite section of an easy-to-mount steel girder grid supporting a slab of reinforced concrete) and widened to 5 m at the massive reinforced concrete abutments, that support the inclined mast. The bridge’s machinery is located inside of the box girder’s abutment.

Nesse Bridge, Leer, Germany Structural Solution
Movable parts

The structure is a typical bascule bridge. The 7 m long cantilever to the central part is balanced by 3.5 m long trusses with ballast sheets to the banks. The flexible suspension is positioned at the focal point, centre of gravity, and when the bridge is opened only friction and wind forces must be overcome. When closed or locked, the hydraulic cylinders carry the bridge with short-term traffic load, or ‘Zwangskräfte’, if the bridge is loaded asymmetrically.
In the bridge centre the two movable parts is secured with electric lock bolts that enhances considerably the bridge’s stability at points with unbalanced loads.

Nesse Bridge, Leer, Germany Structural Solution
Cable-supported composite construction

Mounting with this composite construction is easier and simpler if compared to a pure concrete beam. With the steel construction it is possible to economically insert high local loads into the cables and the connection to the movable parts is robust. The concrete slab carries the axial compression forces, which originate in the horizontal force components of the stay cables. Due to its weight the bridge’s dynamic behaviour is good and the horizontal stiffness of the bridge in transverse direction is sound – this is important when the open bridge is under wind loads.

The composite structure is carried by sealed Galfan covered steel cables, and the mast is stabilised with two sealed guy cables. Masts and stay cables form a special structure and give orientation when crossing the port basin.

Nesse Bridge, Leer, Germany Structural Solution

At the bank, the deck is connected to the bastion; three supporting fingers carry the ordinary reinforced slab which spans over the about 10 m wide water front and leads the horizontal forces from the cables to the abutments. The middle finger also carries the loads of the mast in the middle and the two outside fingers are positioned where the steel girders are spanned into the cable supported composite construction.

All horizontal forces are shortcut with the common bottom plate so that besides the vertical loads, only the external wind loads must be carried into the ground. The bottom plate is approximately 80 cm thick and rests on inclined piles that are embedded into the thick sand stratums at 10 – 12 m length.

The weight of the foundation slab and the earth surcharge reduce the tensile forces in the piles to an extent that additional tie bars under the stay abutments are not necessary.

Nesse Bridge, Leer, Germany Structural Solution

Technical Details

The cable-supported part of the bridge is accessible while opening and closing of the bridge, which makes the bridge very attractive. However, it also has great influence on the layout and the design of the folding parts.

Nesse Bridge, Leer, Germany Technical Details
Folding method

Not having the same amount of people on both bridge sides might result in different heights of the parts during the opening. The locking mechanism must “find” the other part with the aid of an approximation switch and can then activate the electric lock. It might be necessary to compensate bridge distortion

with the conic intake guide of the lock. Finally, the bridge is forced into its designed geometry through a hydraulic system. This is necessary to compensate bends which might result from covering the different height levels.

Nesse Bridge, Leer, Germany Technical Details

Good illumination of the superstructure is performed by mast-integrated spotlights. In the area along the riverbanks, the lighting concept carries delightful warm daylight into dawn: The subdivision of the bastion into three “fingers” allows natural light to break through, and spotlights placed in between illuminate underneath the bridge. Furthermore, in order to enhance qualities of the promenade underneath, the front faces of the bastions offer public seating.

The bottom side of the operable bridge section is painted melon-yellow to highlight each operation and the beautiful movement of the bridge in the blink of an eye.

A discreet balustrade serves as safety railing.

Nesse Bridge, Leer, Germany Technical Details


Integration was the task for this small movable footbridge in the historic Greifswald harbour, a Hanseatic city at the Baltic Sea. At the same time the bridge was to become a maritime landmark, just like its older sister, the historic double-bascule bridge at the entrance to the harbour in the neighbouring village of Wieck.

The Ryck Bridge is a swing bridge with a high mast that, together with the two inclined spars that stabilise it, form a landmark which is illuminated at night. Therefore it can be seen from quite a distance. Its typical maritime structure with mast, tension rods, railings and dolphins, enriches the scenery of Greifswald´s historic harbour with its vintage boats.

Ryck Bridge, Greifswald, Germany Motivation

Structural Solution

The deck of the Ryck Bridge is 3 m wide and consists of a steel grid that is covered with oak planks. The central movable deck part of 15 m length spans from the mast to the northern fixed part of the bridge. To reduce deflections in the closed position and to guarantee stability when open, the movable deck is supported by two stays made of steel tension rods.

Ryck Bridge, Greifswald, Germany Structural Solution
The stays which are connected to the deck via small cantilevers are tensioned so that, for permanent loads, the closed deck does not induce vertical loads into the northern deck. At this location reactions will only occur​
under live load.

The mast, a steel tube of 355.6 mm diameter is rigidly connected to the quayside deck. It forms the rotation axis for the movable part of the deck which, together with the stays, rotates around it. All parts that move around the mast are connected to a ring mount at its bottom. From there all loads are transferred into the steel piles which are directly connected to the ring mount. The tip of the mast is stabilised by two inclined spars which are anchored in the quay walls. In the closed configuration they function like the back stays of a cable-stayed bridge. In the open position, together with the mast, they form a tripod and are also exposed to compression forces.

Technical Details

The bridge is moved by a hydraulic cylinder which is activated by an electric motor. All movable parts below the mast can easily be inspected from the water. The northern joint can be inspected directly from the deck. Only for the maintenance of the hinge bearing at the top of the mast holding the two tension rods, a cherry picker is needed.

Ryck Bridge, Greifswald, Germany Technical Details


Kiel and its busy artificial waterways enjoy a fantastic gateway to the Baltic Sea. Onlookers watch as rigged sailing boats and cruise liners go through its narrow wharfs around the harbour. The freighters moored at the docks and their huge mechanical cranes loading and off-loading container ships in an unbelievable motion sequence that inspired and informed the design of the Kieler Hörn Bridge. These scenes bring some engineers back to childhood and days playing with Meccano or Märklin metal construction kits, unknowingly on their way to becoming an engineer.

Today at schlaich bergermann partner we plan our design solutions around the search for lightweight and elegant bridges and structures that respect their particular context and minimise the use of materials. In the context of a moveable bridge in Kiel, we chose a holistic and integral approach.

Three-Span Folding Bridge, Kiel, Germany Motivation

Structural Solution

The basic idea was to design a simple cable stayed bridge with three segments being suspended via two portal masts. In this way the usually continuous deck was split into three hinged segments, resulting in a three-span bascule bridge located near the Kiel harbour, a very important location for the daily crossing of many pedestrians into the inner harbour at the southern end of Kiel Fjord.

A purposefully adapted, and arguably a new folding mechanism, developed deliberately without any hidden dynamics, enables ships up to mid-size tourist boats to pass through several times a day. The folding mechanism manages fully opening and closing the bridge in only two minutes.

Three-Span Folding Bridge, Kiel, Germany Structural Solution
The bridge length totals 105 m divided into two fixed parts of 53 m and 28 m on each shore, and an operable 25 m long in the middle. The sea jetties are made of girder grids with rolled steel profiles that capture the industrial atmosphere of ships and cranes; the deck surface was made from oak-wood planks to match the natural surroundings.

The bridge’s fixed parts are simple multi-span systems with approximately 8 m between the pile moorings; the movable part is a conventional cable stayed bridge in closed position. Its 25 m long deck is subdivided by three hinges to enable the folding of the bridge. Neither hydraulics nor springs were used to keep the cables under tension - it unfolds to its stretched position driven by its own dead load.

Three-Span Folding Bridge, Kiel, Germany Structural Solution

Technical Details

The entire bridge is moved by the continuous rotation of one single speed winch on which all cables are coiled. This winch is driven by a hydraulic motor (electrical power 2*44 kW).

Three-Span Folding Bridge, Kiel, Germany Technical Details
The deck is supported on both sides by two cables that are deviated via two mast portals and anchored in the foundation of the jetty. One mast portal, the rear, is connected rigidly with the deck; the other portal has hinged joints at the base and rotates in various angles related to the deck. In all positions and under any load the cable system is statically determined. This is of fundamental advantage for the design of the bridge, since the structural systems "stay the same" during the motion process - only the positions of the focal points of the determined loads are moving during the folding sequence.

Despite its complex play of moveable deck segments, turning rolls, axles and stretching levers, the system features the simplest possible drive mechanism to achieve a sustained and robust operation.

In the 90 ° motion process, two general phases can be distinguished: In its closed position the cables 1 and 2 are carrying the edges of deck element 2 and 3, while the far end of deck 3 is still resting on the fixed support of the pier. Starting the motion in the angles from 0 °- 15 ° the cables 1 and 2 are pulling the bridge deck elements. Cable three, connecting the deck elements 1 and 3 in handrail height, holding deck element 3 up, is just slightly tightened – not playing an active role yet. This is followed by the phase 15 °- 90 ° where cable 3/3a now is taking over the loads from cable 2, thus 1 and 3 are carrying the loads. At the same time the balustrade, hinged at the base points, is folding in a scissors-like motion parallel to the deck elements.

Three-Span Folding Bridge, Kiel, Germany Technical Details
Since both lifespan and reliable uninterrupted operation are mandatory, provisions were taken during design: all motion exposed elements (bolts, pins) are made from stainless steel, supported by tightened maintenance-free hinge bearings, and slide bushes, used for the balustrade, are equipped with PTFE-bronze sliding surface.

All moving cables are round strand ropes. Since cables 1 and 2 need are solid (D = 40-55 mm) for the high live loads, they are not "directly driven". Their sockets at the meeting point with the deck are connected to smaller cables acting as a chain block and are coiled on the winch.

The bridge was assembled in the workshop of a shipyard in Rostock and all of its sensors, electronics, and complete hydraulics installed and tested to ensure that the unique folding mechanism and motions operated perfectly. Methodical and repetitive testing checked the bridge’s operation over a 48 hours period at a folding sequence of 15 minutes intervals. With successful results during testing, the shipping of the bridge to its final site was approved.

The bridge was assembled by a floating crane, in true Kiel harbour fashion, just as the scene that inspired its design. At its inauguration in 1997, the bridge’s folding mechanism was operating 10 times a day, beautifully reflecting the Kiel harbour surroundings in its movement, shape, mechanical and structural simplicity.

Three-Span Folding Bridge, Kiel, Germany Technical Details


The Ultimate Trough™ is a sophisticated parabolic trough collector developed to minimise Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCoE) and the overall initial capital investment of a new solar power plant. The Ultimate Trough™ is a second generation trough developed by schlaich bergermann partner sbp sonne, the Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow, and Logistics (IML) under the leadership of Flabeg, with significant design technology improvements. The Ultimate Trough™ is one of the largest parabolic troughs ever built and operated.

The motivation to consistently reduce costs, in this case, by approximately 20-25 % depending on the field configurations, derives from the fact that collectors account for approximately one third of the total initial costs of a Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant. Such cost reductions are made possible with elaborate techno-economical studies, advancing manufacturing methodologies and optical efficiencies.

Ultimate Trough Testloop TM, California, USA Motivation

Structural Solution

The Ultimate Trough™ Demonstration Loop tested full fabrication and erection concepts against their respective costs and operation confirmed that performance values exceeded expectations, proving that solar energy is commercially feasible.

Ultimate Trough Testloop TM, California, USA Structural Solution
When tracking, parabolic trough collectors rotate very slowly around a horizontal axis. A high levelof accuracy is required to ensure that the concentrated solar radiation hits the receiver. Typically, tracking deviations of no more than 0.1° are admitted for solar thermal concentrators. Deviations from the desired collector orientation lead to a reduction in power output due to reflected solar radiation missing the receiver.

Designing a suitable collector and the corresponding drive mechanism is therefore always a techno-optimi-zation procedure: The figure of merit to be minimized
is electricity generation cost. To this end, the optimum combination of drive system precision (increasing power output) and cost must be found. One way to solar field cost reduction is to reduce the number of drives per mirror area: Instead of using many small drives, one larger stronger central drive unit is used; thus minimizing the required cabling for control and power supply. The higher the torsional stiffness of the collector structure, the more collector length can be rotated by one drive without losing accuracy at the collector ends - far away from the central drive system.

Ultimate Trough Testloop TM, California, USA Structural Solution
Wider collectors also increase the active area per collector length/drive system. The necessary rotation angles for parabolic trough collectors are slightly over 180° – 180° to enable following the course of the sun from sunrise to sunset, plus a few extra degrees to allow for a safety position where the optical axis points below the horizon to avoid any potentially harming reflections. For such relatively low angular ranges, cost-efficient linear drives can be used to create

a rotational motion by means of levers. Especially in the event of high forces, such linear drives are designed as hydraulic lift cylinders. This option was selected for the UltimateTrough. In addition to cost advantages, hydraulic drives also offer a number of specific functions such as the simple synchronisation of several drives, power limitation in the event of
overloads and storage-supported emergency operation.

Ultimate Trough Testloop TM, California, USA Structural Solution
As loads for the drive of the concentrators, wind forces are to be mainly considered as well as loads resulting from the construction’s dead weight in case of an unbalanced system. Where the admissible operational wind speed is exceeded, a wind alarm is triggered and the concentrator is moved to a favourable position, in which even highest wind loads can be endured.

In many cases, wind tunnel tests are performed to identify the loads with a high level of precision and – wherever possible – reduce them through intelligent modifications of the design, in order to achieve high economic efficiency in terms of dimensioning the drives and the structure.

The very different rotational speeds, the necessary high precision, unprotected operation in the open air, minimised maintenance, and a useful life of 25 years or more impose special requirements on the drive technology, which are unusual in this particular combination.

Ultimate Trough Testloop TM, California, USA Structural Solution

Technical Details

The UltimateTrough drive system consists of two ​hydraulic cylinders and the corresponding axis with ​levers and bearings. In the course of the day the ​collector moves approximately every 20 seconds ​by about a tenth of a degree. This is achieved by a travel of the cylinders of approximately half a milli-metre. Between the phases of movement, the cylinder counter balance valves maintain cylinder position within a tenth of a millimetre.

Ultimate Trough Testloop TM, California, USA Technical Details

Ultimate Trough Testloop TM, California, USA Technical Details
So far, solar thermal power systems developed by or in cooperation with schlaich bergermann und partner have been built in Egypt, France, India, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Spain and the USA. These systems, and the ones to follow help to shape an energy future that does no longer have to rely on fossil fuels; to the benefit of all.

Ultimate Trough Testloop TM, California, USA Technical Details


The HelioFocus Dish Concentrator was developed for the HelioFocus, an Israeli based, international solar thermal company that develops and commercialises boosting systems to generate high temperature (around 600 °C) steam, generating energy to be incorporated into both conventional and combine cycle power plants. Initiated in 2008, the development of this technology, which provides very high efficiency solar to electrical conversion, thus potentially reducing electricity costs, required unconventional thinking and innovative solutions.

Point-focusing concentrators are usually dishes or central receiver systems with heliostats that can reach extremely high solar concentration factors for optimal efficiency. HelioFocus’ specifications dictated a boosting concept with very large concentrators and a reflecting surface of 500 m²; in itself a very challenging size since the concentrator system tracks the sun path in two axes.

Our unconventional and original approach to solve the problem generated the first prototype dish to be built and tested in Dimona, Israel, in 2011. The Demonstration Plant Orion was built in Wuhai, Inner Mongolia, China, in 2013 already with eight improved systems, corresponding to 1 MW electricity.

It was the first time a group of dishes operated simultaneously to collect energy via hot air piping. Furthermore, the demonstration plant operated under harsh environmental conditions with frosts below -30 °C. The plant planned to expand production to 10 MW and 200 MW to boost a 600 MW coal-fired conventional power plant to be erected on the site.

HelioFocus Dish Demonstration Plant, Wuhai, China Motivation

Structural Solution

Each reflector has overall dimensions of 24.5 x 24 m, and is composed of 220 curved glass mirrors, each of them measuring 1.5 x 1.5 m, which are arranged in a Fresnel-like pattern, i.e. they are staggered on a flat supporting structure. A heat exchanger (receiver or PCU) is placed in the focal point and generates pressurised hot air of up to 1,000 °C. Hot air from many concentrators is collected via isolated air ducts and fed into a heat exchanger, where it converts its heat into steam, which then enters the power plant cycle.

Each concentrator’s axis tracks the sun path supported by a turn table that rotates around a vertical (azimuth) and a horizontal (elevation) axis.

HelioFocus Dish Demonstration Plant, Wuhai, China Structural Solution
The concentrator is a simple and stiff framework design from hollow profiles with a flat top face. Its “backbone” is a rigid torque box along the lower edge of the concentrator. The receiver support is made up of four main beams with transverse and diagonal stiffening, transmitting the dead weight loads of the receiver, located at the focal plane 14 m above the mirrors, and the air pipe to the cantilevered arms and the torque box.

The turntable main structure consists of two side beams, the front beam and the rear beam, whereas the latter is used as a counterweight. The hollow box side beams are welded out of plates, with the trunnion bearings for the elevation hydraulic cylinders integrated. They are partially open on the top side to allow the cylinders to dive into them.

The structural performance was calculated for a considerable number of load case combinations of dead weight and wind loads. Wind tunnel testing was performed to obtain precise wind loads for the global system as well as for the individual mirror facets.

HelioFocus Dish Demonstration Plant, Wuhai, China Structural Solution

Technical Details

The drives of such a large concentrator have to withstand high loads from wind and dead weight, requiring therefore non-standard solutions and careful design. Since hydraulic actuators are well-suited for high-forces and slow motion they were selected for the drives.

The turn table is supported on four bogies with double wheels. A ready-to-use wheel block system from the crane industry was employed and the wheels roll on a circular heavy crane rail, which is supported on rail chairs and a ring foundation, designed to allow for thermal expansion of the rail ring.

In the elevation axis four spherical and maintenance free plain bearings were used, but the azimuth bearing has to accommodate the large air pipe, therefore a custom design with a hollow shaft and maintenance free plain bearings was required. The hollow shaft is anchored to the central foundation, which has a hollow shaft to accommodate the air pipe and the rotary joint.

HelioFocus Dish Demonstration Plant, Wuhai, China Technical Details
Two large double-acting hydraulic cylinders, with 280 mm diameter piston, are used to lift the concentrator and rotate it in the elevation axis. The cylinders are mounted on the turn table side beams; a trunnion pin design allows for improved buckling resistance of the piston rod.

An innovative pilgrim step drive solution was developed for the azimuth movement: two hydraulically actuated rail brakes are connected to the turn table main structure via hydraulic cylinders. By alternatively closing and opening the brakes while extracting and retracting the cylinders, the drive forces are transmitted to the rail by one of the brakes at a time. In standstill, both brakes are activated and can thus take up high survival wind loads.

The hydraulic unit was specifically developed for this application and offers some special features. A hydraulic accumulator was added, thus increased motion speed is provided for limited time, allowing for use of a smaller pump with lower power rating. Furthermore, this enables completely autonomous emergency lowering of the concentrator in case of power blackouts. This even works with a complete control system outage.

HelioFocus Dish Demonstration Plant, Wuhai, China Technical Details


The carbon fibre stress-ribbon bridge at the Technische Universität (TU) Berlin could be a first step towards an ambitious goal directly tied to sustainable construction: building structures using minimal resources and materials.

Lightweight structures are sustainable by definition as they minimise the use of materials thus preserving our resources. Carbon fibre, which is ten times stronger than steel and weighs only a fifth of it, is ideal for lightweight tensile structures.

Carbon fibre stress-ribbons of 1 mm thick carry this bridge that spans 13 m, making it “as lightweight as a bridge can be”. These extremely slender ribbons are made using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) and are extremely light. Lightness, however, does come at a cost, and the price we pay for lightness, in this case, is liveliness. Fortunately though, damping through intelligent use of technology and robotics in the design can counterbalance the liveliness.

Carbon Fibre Stress-Ribbon Bridge, Berlin, Germany Motivation

Structural Solution

So far, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) has been mainly used in structural engineering to reinforce existing concrete structures, whilst their potential for new light-weight structures has been mostly unused. To show this potential for these kinds of lightweight construction the first CFRP Stress-Ribbon Bridge was built 2007 in the 180 m long Peter-Behrens-Halle - at the Institute of Civil and Structural Engineering of the TU Berlin.

Carbon Fibre Stress-Ribbon Bridge, Berlin, Germany Structural Solution
Stress-ribbon bridges are one of the lightest and smartest bridges. The ribbons are anchored in lateral abutments and the pedestrians walk directly on the ribbons that in this case are covered with open-jointed concrete plates.

Usually the ribbons are steel plates, ropes or lacings. Using carbon fibre reinforced plastics instead of normal steel plates creates an opportunity for an innovative development of stress-ribbon bridges. The tensile strength of carbon fibre is around 5000 MPa, with a weight of only 1500 kg/m³. A hanging carbon fibre band could be around 300 km long, before it would break under its own weight!

With such a material, extremely slender ribbons can be made. The challenge, however, is anchoring the CFRP ribbons at the abutment, as they can neither be bolted nor welded to the abutments.

The appropriate solution for this is to wrap the thin ribbon around large pins at the anchorage. A multi-layered looped ribbon consisting of ten layers of ​0.1 mm CFRP bands each made of thousands of ​fibres was fabricated in Switzerland and used for ​the first time in such a bridge.​

Carbon Fibre Stress-Ribbon Bridge, Berlin, Germany Structural Solution

Technical Details

Air as the medium to reduce oscillations

The structural stiffness of this bridge is minimal and there is also very little damping. These are the reasons for large vertical oscillation amplitudes, when excitations near the structural resonance frequencies occur. The first vertical resonance frequency of the ribbon is around 1.5 Hz and the second is around 3 Hz. Both these frequencies can easily be entrained by a pedestrian, as our walking frequency is around 2 Hz. When a person walked along the centre line of the undamped (i.e. deactivated) bridge, accelerations of up to 50% of gravity (corresponding to a vertical displacement of 33 mm) were measured. Being exposed to such accelerations is no longer perceived as comfortable!

Carbon Fibre Stress-Ribbon Bridge, Berlin, Germany Technical Details
Active Vibration Control

Pioneers in the field of Active Vibration Control (AVC) systems are the automobile and aerospace industry. AVC systems for occupants in cars, and active wing control (or active noise control in planes) are intensively researched and used today. The idea of active vibration control is to overcome the limitations of passive systems by actuators. Selective force or vibration applications counteract the disturbing vibrations at the place

of issuance following the motto: “Good vibrations against bad vibrations”. Therefore, oscillations of the structure are constantly measured by sensors. A controller evaluates the input data and reacts in real-time. Finally, the actuators perform the force for the response. The sensors measure the effects and the control loop is closed.

Carbon Fibre Stress-Ribbon Bridge, Berlin, Germany Technical Details
In this case the actuators (artificial muscles or so-called fluidic muscles) were installed at the mid- and quarter points of the bridge at the height of the hand rails. These were the locations where they could counteract best the oscillations corresponding to the first two resonance frequencies. The muscles comprise flexible and airtight chloroprene rubber tubes, with an integrated rhombic grid. This consists of stiff Aramid fibres with connectors at the ends. It is the rhombic fibre grid data that causes a contraction of the tube when the internal pressure increases. Like a biological muscle these muscles can only generate tensile forces. Their strength however is up to 6000 N (which is equivalent to 600 kg). Active vibration control in this bridge increases the damping by a factor of ten, thus reducing the oscillation of the bridge to a level that is hardly noticeable.

Carbon Fibre Stress-Ribbon Bridge, Berlin, Germany Technical Details
Stadium BC Place

Length x Width: 261 m x 220 m
Fixed roof: 32,500 m²
Retractable roof: 8,500 m² ETFE
Seats: 56,000

Olympic Stadion

Length x Width: 200 m x 140 m
Membrane area: 20.000 m²
Number of ropes: 26
Time to unfold: 30 minutes
Number of winches: 43

Ultimate Through™ Test Loop

Aperture width: 7.5 m
SCE length: 24 m
SCEs per SCA: 10
Loop length: 480 m
Aperture area: 3,600 m²

Nesse Bridge

Total length: 123 m
Span: 82 m
Bridge width: 3-5 m
Clear distance: 14 m
Cross sections:
42 m² steel bascule bridge,
268.5 m² composite,
212 m² reinforced concrete
Roof of casting house

Distance between
wave formed rails: 20 m
Roof material ETFE-foil cussion
Roof surface:
approx. 29 m x 20 m

Footbridge over the Inner

Span: 73.72 m
Width: 3.50 m
Extension of superstructure in up
3.65 m
Height of masts: 20 m
Hog in down position: 1.10 m
Hog in up position: 9.20 m

Frankfurt a. M.
Commerzbank-Arena Frankfurt
(former Waldstation)

Fixed roof: 29,000 m²
Retractable roof: 8,200 m²
Seats: 48,000

Sport- ad Wellness Bath

Roof surface ETFE-cushions:
approx. 1,260 m²
Of which operable roof surface:
approx. 504 m²
concrete, wood, ETFE-cushions,
4-ply, 6 x 3 m

Roof Bullfight Arena - Vista

Diameter fixed roof: 100 m
Diameter cushion: 50 m
Fixed: 5,890 m²
Inflated cushion plan area:
1,960 m²
Structural steel in fixed roof: 43
Total weight of cushion: 60 t

Bull ring roof Zaragoza
(Plaza de Toros)

Area fixed roof: 4,400 m²
Area retractable roof: 1,000 m²
Time of opening: 3 minutes
Seats: 15.000

Roof of Roman Arena Nîmes

Membrane area: 5,000 m²
Main axes: 57 m x 88 m
Number of ropes: 26
Membrane thickness: 1 mm

Three-Segment Folding Bridge
Kieler Hörn

Total length of bridge: 105 m
Main span: 26 m
Deck width: 5 m
Weight of folding part: 54 t
Movements per day:
8.9 (winter), 11.4 (summer)

Ryck Bridge

Length: 73.5 m
Span: 9 m / 15 m in passage
Pylon height: approx. 14 m
Base area: approx. 230 m²
Drive: electric motor driven
hydraulic cylinder

Carbon Fibre Stress Ribbon

10 strips of 0.1 mm x 50 forming
one ribbon.

Concrete: 10 cm
Span: 13 m Tensile strength of
carbon fibre:
5000 MPa

National Stadium

Length x Width: 310 m x 280 m
Roof depth: 85 m
Fixed membrane roof:
54,000 m²
Glass roof: 4,000 m²
Retractable roof: 11,000 m²
Seats: approx. 55,000

National Stadium

Outer roof: 29,200 m²
Retractable root: 9,700 m²
Polycarbonate roof: 4,500 m²
Steel tonnage: 3,200 t
Cables: 780 t, up to d=135 mm
Seats: 55,000, max. 63,000

Courtyard City Hall Vienna

Dimension: 34 m x 32 m

Inner Mongolia
Helio Focus Dish System

Dish size: 27.5 m x 25.7 m
Focal length: 14 m
Mirror surface: 493 m²
Steel mass: 73 t
Total mass: 130 t


schlaich bergermann und partner

Along with the changes in planning and building over ​recent decades, today it is more important than ever ​to look beyond the knowledge we have acquired. We are searching for and finding opportunities all over the world, with quality as our primary aim.

As structural engineers we are generalists, collaborating as equals with all those involved in construction – clients; architects; specialist engineers; industry and builders. We do this with personal commitment, as a team, on the basis of thirty years of experience and with curiosity and a passion for engineering. Work in our company, which focuses on the three main themes of building, surveying and solar energy, bears the consistent mark of schlaich bergermann und partner.

Project Team

Imprint Project Team


Imprint Project Team 2

People involved

1. Stadium BC Place, Vancouver, Canada


Stantec, Vancouver, Canada

Collaboration with:
Geiger Engineers, USA

Calculation of membrane:
Tensys Ltd., UK

Main contractor:
PCL Westcoast, Canada

Steel structure:
Canam Group, Quebec, Canada, Structal-Heavy Steel Construction, USA

Cable structure:
Freyssinet, France

Adaptive inner roof and ETFE-Facade: Hightex, Germany ​
with Eccon, Austria

Permanent roof:
USA Shade & Fabric Stuctures Inc.

Structural engineers:
schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart, Germany
Ulrich Dillmann, Hansmartin Fritz, Knut Göppert, Nadine Mageau, Thomas Moschner, Christoph Paech, Francisco Pantano,
Peter Schulze, Michael Stein, Tobias Waldraff, Michael Werner


2. National Stadium Warsaw, Poland

Narodowe Centrum Sportu Sp. z o.o., Poland

Lead design:
gmp Architekten von Gerkan, Marg und Partner, Berlin, Germany JSK Architekten Warsaw, Poland, schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart, Germany

Main contractor:
Joint Venture Alpine, Germany
Hydrobudowa, Poland

Roof and membrane structure:
Cimolai, Italy, Mostostal Zarbze, Poland, Hightex, Germany

Design of grandstands:
Matejko und Partner, Wroclaw, Poland

Wind expert:
Wacker Ingenieure, Birkenfeld, Germany

Structural engineers:
schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart, Germany
Tiago Carvalho, Ulrich Dillmann, Hansmartin Fritz,
Knut Göppert, Alberto Goosen, Sebastian Grotz, Lorenz Haspel,
Stefan Justiz, Roman, Kemmler, Christoph Paech, Bernd Ruhnke,
Knut Stockhusen, Klaus Straub, Cornelia Striegan, Andrzej Winkler

Imprint Project Participants


3. Roof Of Casting House, Duisburg, Germany

Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord, Germany

planinghaus Architekten, Darmstadt, Germany

Assessment of existing structure:
Röber + Partner Ingenieurgemeinschaft, Germany

Checking engineer:
Ing. Domke Nachf. mit Germanischer Lloyd, Germany

Wind expert:
Wacker Ingenieure, Birkenfeld, Germany

Structural engineers:
schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart, Germany
Uwe Burkhardt, Thomas Keck, Bernd Ruhnke, Mike Schlaich,
Jens Schneider, Uwe Teutsch


4. Retractable Membrane Roof, Vienna, Austria

Municipal authorities of the city of Vienna, Austria

Structural design:
Silja Tillner and Rudolf Bergermann

Structural engineer inspection and site supervision:
Vasko und Partner, Vienna, Austria

Main contractor:
Filzamer, Vienna, Austria

Covertex GmbH, Obing, Germany

Wind expert:
Wacker Ingenieure, Birkenfeld, Germany

Structural engineers:
schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart, Germany
Rudolf Bergermann, Jochen Bettermann, Jochen Gugeler,
Thomas Keck

Imprint Project Participants


5. Nesse Bridge, Leer, Germany

City of Leer / LEEB, Germany

Project management:
Hochtief Projektentwicklung, Osnabrück, Germany

Checking engineer:
Hartmut Pasternak, Braunschweig, Germany

ARGE Prien-Neumann, Bremen/Emden, Germany, Wurpts Maschinen- und Stahlwasserbau GmbH, Ihlow-Riepe, Germany

Structural engineers:
schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart, Germany
Uwe Burkhardt, Ulrich Dillmann, Thomas Keck, Christiane Sander, Mike Schlaich, Feridun Tomalak


6. Ryck Bridge, Greifswald, Germany

Tiefbau- und Grünflächenamt Greifswald, Germany

gmp Architekten von Gerkan, Marg und Partner, Germany

Heinrich Rohlfing GmbH, Germany

Collaboration with:
WES Landschaftsarchitekten, Hamburg, Germany, b&o Ingenieure, Hamburg, Germany, Panzig & Vosberg Beratende Ingenieure, Greifswald, Germany

Structural engineers:
schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart, Germany
Bettina Friedrich, Thomas Keck, Olaf Kracht, Sebastian Linden,
Mike Schlaich

Imprint Project Participants


7. Three-Span Folding Bridge, Kiel, Germany

Landeshauptstadt Kiel, represented by the Tiefbauamt and the Hochbauamt, division Betriebstechnik, Germany

Overall design concept and planning:
gmp Architekten von Gerkan, Marg und Partner, Germany

ARGE Hörnquerung, Neptun Stahlobjektbau GmbH, Rostock, Germany (movable bridge section), Heinrich Hirdes GmbH, NL Kiel, Germany (foundation), HERION Systemtechnik GmbH, Bremen, Germany ​
(Detailed design and engineering of technical equipment), Dr. Schippke und Partner GbR, Hannover, Germany (inspection and site supervision of technical equipment)

Checking engineer:
Landeshauptstadt Kiel, Prüfamt für Baustatik, Germany

Structural engineers:
schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart, Germany
Manfred Arend, Jochen Bettermann, Frauke Fluhr, Brian Hunt,
Jan Knippers, Peter Scheffold, Feridun Tomalak


8. Ultimate Trough™ Testloop, California, USA

Flabeg Holding GmbH, sbp sonne gmbh, Germany

Wind tunnel testing:
Wacker Ingenieure, Birkenfeld, Germany

Structural engineers and technology developer:
schlaich bergermann und partner, sbp sonne gmbh,
Stuttgart, Germany
Zeyad Abul-Ella, Andreas Bader, Markus Balz, Manuel Birkle,
Evgeniya Borovleva, Karl Brosza, Steffen Dierolf, Andreas Eisele,
Lena Gabeler, Verena Göcke, Klaus Kemp, Ludwig Meese,
Christian Rahmig, Finn von Reeken, Wolfgang Schiel,
Axel Schweitzer, Nicolas Ürlings, Bernd Zwingmann

Imprint Project Participants


9. HelioFocus Dish Demonstration Plant,
Mongolia, China

HelioFocus Ltd., Israel

Architecture Design & Research Institute, South China University of Technology

Jinggong Steel International, China (steel construction)
HAWE Hydraulik SE, Germany (hydraulics),

Structural engineers:
schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart, Germany / Shanghai, China
Andreas Bader, Wei Chen, Thomas Keck, Alexander Stäblein,
Nico Ürlings, Lei Zhou, Hristo Zlatanov


10. Carbon Fibre Stress-Ribbon Bridge,
Berlin, Germany

Mike Schlaich, Technische Universität Berlin
Achim Bleicher, Technische Universität Berlin
Thomas Schauer, Technische Universität Berlin

Carbo-Link, Dübendorf, Switzerland

Festo AG & Co. KG, Esslingen, Germany

Heckmann Stahl- und Metallbau Ost GmbH, Eisenhüttenstadt,


Further reading:
1. Schlaich, M.; Bleicher, A.: Carbon fibre stress-ribbon bridge,
Cobrae Conference, Stuttgart 2007, Universität Stuttgart 2007.
2. Bleicher, A.; Schlaich, M.: Active Vibration Control with Artificial Pneumatic Muscles for Carbon Fibre Stress-Ribbon Bridge, 17th Congress of IABSE, Chicago 2008, Creating and Renewing Urban Structures, S. 318-319, 2008, ISBN 978-3-85748-118-5.

Imprint Project Participants

Publication Details

schlaich bergermann und partner, sbp gmbh, Stuttgart

Arndt Goldack, Jochen Gugeler, Thomas Keck,
Christoph Paech, Sven Plieninger, Christiane Sander,
Mike Schlaich, Knut Stockhusen, Gerhard Weinrebe

Sarah Arbes, Gerhard Weinrebe

Editorial review:
Sonja Breining, Claudia Schaffert, Viktor Plieninger

iBook Concept, design and layout:
Moniteurs GmbH, Berlin

Web Concept, Web Realisation:
logo:Werbeagentur, Stuttgart

B2browse GmbH, Stuttgart

Architectural Videos:
Cinematography, editing and postproduction:
Till Beckmann / Rimini Berlin​
Sound design: Jochen Jezussek, Christian Obermaier​
Additional cinematography BC Place: Franz Reimer


Coordination Architectural Videos:
Monika Jocher

Introduction Videos:
Filmfabrik Schwaben, Stuttgart

p. 1, 2 Michael Elkan
p. 9, 10, 14, 15, 16 Marcus Bredt
p. 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28 planinghaus architekten bda
p. 40 Ingrid Fieback
a. 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47 Wilfried Dechau
p. 48, 49, 55, 56 (Andrea Haase, bluecrayola)
a. 29, 30
p. 34, 35, 36, 52, 54, 58, 59, 61, 68, 88, 89, 91 Till Beckmann
p. 67, 71, 74 Flabeg FE GmbH
p. 75, 76 Gerhard Weinrebe

Version 1.0 (October 2014)
© sbp gmbh

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This book or parts thereof may not be reproduced, stored in a database or transmitted in any form whatsoever without the written permission of schlaich bergermann und partner, sbp gmbh.
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